Include an unscored "wonder question" to give an opportunity for students to reflect on what they already know about a science concept, like matter moving through a food chain (as well as possible misconceptions). Students revisit the wonder question at the end of the test.
Penalize the student for their answer on "thinkaloud," reflection-type answers. Convey to the student that there is a "right" answer.
Consider how students with visual impairments or communication support needs can respond to a wonder question.