Flexible grouping for item writers; item writers can collaborate with other item writers in similar or different grade levels as well as in similar domains (e.g., physical science, life science, etc.). Expectations for group work are modeled, and rubrics/checklists are provided.
Item writers work in isolation or are grouped randomly. Collaboration with other item writers is not an explicit step in item writing cycles.
Facilitate discussions so that all item writers can participate equally.